Technical Abbreviations


A/D – Analog to Digital

AAS – Advanced Antenna Systems

AC – Alternating Current

AC/DC – Alternating Current to Direct Current (converter / power supply)

ACK – Acknowledgement

ACS – Active Current Sharing or American Chemical Society

ADC – Analog to Digital Converter

ADM – Add/Drop Multiplexer

ADSL – Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line

AGV – Automated Guided Vehicle

AI – Artificial Intelligence

AISG – Antenna Interface Standards Group

AMC – Advanced Mezzanine Card

AMP – Architects of Modern Power or Amplifier

AMR – Autonomous Mobile Robot

ANSI – American National Standards Institute

AOI – Automated Optical Inspection

AON – Active Optical Network

AP – Access Point

API – Application Programming Interface

APM – Advanced Power Management

APT – Average Power Tracking

APU – Accelerated Processing Unit

AR – Augmented Reality

AS – Access Server

ART – Adaptive Ramp-up Time

ASCR – A Single Cycle Response (digital compensator)

ASIC – Application Specific Integrated Circuit

ASSP – Application Specific Standard Product

ATCA – Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture

ATE – Automated Test Equipment

ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode

AVA – Analog Voltage Adjust

AVL – Approved Vendor List

AVS – Adaptive Voltage Scaling

AVSBus – Adaptive Voltage Scaling Bus

AWG – American Wire Gauge



BBU – Baseband Unit or Battery Backup Unit

BEM – Boundary Element Method

BFN – Beam Forming Network

BGA – Ball Grid Array / solder Bump Grid Array

BJT – Bipolar Junction Transistor

BMP – Board Mounted Power

BMPS – Board Mounted Power Supply

BMS – Battery Management System

BoM – Bill of Materials

BSC – Base Station Controller

BSI – British Standards Institute

BSS – Base Station System

BTS – Base Transceiver Station

BW – Bandwidth



CA – Controller Assembly

CAD – Computer Aided Design

CAGR – Compound Annual Growth Rate

CAN – Controller Area Network (bus)

CAN FD – Controller Area Network Flexible Data-rate

CAS – Chemical Abstracts Service (number)

CB – Certification Body

CC – Constant Current

CCM – Continuous Conduction Mode

CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access

CE – Conformité Européenne (European Conformity) or Customer Edge

CEN – Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Committee for Standardization)

CENELEC – Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)

CEM – Contract Electronics Manufacturer

CFD – Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFM – Cubic Feet per Minute (airflow)

CM – Common Mode (noise/choke)

CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

CMRR – Common Mode Rejection Ratio

CMRT – Conflict Minerals Reporting Template

CMTI – Common Mode Transient Immunity

CoC – Certificate of Conformance

CoO – Country of Origin

COTS – Commercial Off The Shelf

CPA – Centralized Power Architecture

CPE – Customer Premises Equipment

CPU – Central Processing Unit

CQC – China Quality Certification

C-RAN – Centralized Radio Access Network

CSA – Canadian Standards Association

CSV – Comma Separated Values

CTBP – Control, Transport, Baseband & Power

CTI – Comparative Tracking Index

CU – Centralized Unit

CV – Constant Voltage

CWDM – Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing

CXL – Compute eXpress Link



D-AMPS – Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System

D/A – Digital to Analog

DAC – Digital to Analog Converter

DAP – Delivered At Place

DAS – Distributed Antenna System

DBF – Digital Beam Forming

DBV – Dynamic Bus Voltage

DC – Direct Current

DC/AC – Direct Current to Alternating Current (inverter)

DC/DC – Direct Current to Direct Current (converter)

DCL – Decision Logic or Data Control Language

DCM – Discontinuous Conduction Mode

DCR – Direct Current Resistance (measurement)

DCS – Distributed Control System

DDP – Delivered Duty Paid

DDR – Double Data Rate (memory)

DFC – Direct Frequency Control

DFE – Design For the Environment

DFM – Design For Manufacturability

DiCon – Direct Conversion

DIL – Dual InLine (package)

DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardisation)

DIP – Dual Inline Package

DLC – Dynamic Loop Compensation

DLS – Droop Load Sharing

DMUX – Demultiplexer

DOSA – Distributed-power Open Standards Alliance

DOW – Date Of Withdrawal

DPA – Distributed Power Architecture

DPM – Digital Power Management or Dynamic Power Management

DPoL – Digital Point of Load (converter)

DPWM – Digital Pulse Width Modulation or Discontinuous Pulse Width Modulation

DRAM – Dynamic Random Access Memory

DSL – Digital Subscriber Line

DSLAM – Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer

DSP – Digital Signal Processor

DTI – Distance Through Insulation

DTC – Direct Torque Control

DU – Distributed Unit

DUT – Device Under Test

DVS – Dynamic Voltage Scaling

DVT – Design Validation Testing

DWDM – Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing



E2E – End to End

EAR – Export Administration Regulations

EB – Eighth Brick

EBITDA – Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization

EC – Engineering Change or Edge Computing

ECHA – European CHemicals Agency

ECN – Export Control Notice

ECCN – Export Control Classification Number

EDA – Electronic Design Automation

EDGE – Enhanced Data for Global Evolution

EDI – Electronic Data Interchange

EDP – Electrical Design Power or Electronic Data Processing

EER – Envelope Elimination and Restoration

EFT – Electrical Fast Transient

EIA – Electronic Industries Association

ELV – Extra Low Voltage

EMAC – Ethernet Media Access Control (address)

eMBB – Enhanced Mobile BroadBand

EMC – Electromagnetic Compatibility

EMF – Electromotive Force

EMI – Electromagnetic Interference

EMR – Electromagnetic Radiation

EMS – Electronic Manufacturing Services

EN – Norme Européen (European Standard)

eNB – Evolved NodeB

ENIG – Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold

EOL – End Of Life

EPON – Ethernet Passive Optical Network

EPROM – Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

ERI – Early Return Index

ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning

ESD – Electrostatic Discharge

ESL – Equivalent Series Inductance

ESR – Equivalent Series Resistance

ESS – Environmental Stress Screening

ET – Envelope Tracking

ETA – Estimated Time of Arrival

ETD – Estimated Time of Departure

EUT – Equipment Under Test

EV – Electric Vehicle

EVDO – Evolution Data Optimized

EVT – Engineering Validation Testing

EXW – Ex Works



FAE – Field Application Engineer

FAI – First Article Inspection

FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions

FAR – Failure Analysis Report

FCA – Free Carrier

FCC – Federal Communications Commission

FDD – Frequency Division Duplex

FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access

FEA – Finite Element Analysis

FEM – Finite Element Method

FET – Field Effect Transistor

FFT – Fast Fourier Transform

FHA – Fundamental Harmonic Analysis

FIT – Failures In Time

FMD – Full Material Declaration

FOB – Free On Board

FOD – Foreign Object Debris/Damage

FPD – Flex Power Designer

FPGA – Field Programmable Gate Array

FPM – Flex Power Modules

FRA – Fixed Radio Access

FRU – Field Replaceable Unit

FTTx – Fiber To The "x" (Premise/Home/Building/Cabinet/Node etc.)

FWA – Fixed Wireless Access



GaAs – Gallium Arsenide

GAM – Global Account Manager

GaN – Gallium Nitride

GCB – Group Communication Bus

GCM – Global Commodity Management

GDT – Gas Discharge Tube

GMSL – Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link

gNB – Next Generation NodeB

GND – Ground

GPIB – General Purpose Interface Bus

GPIO – General Purpose Input/Output

GPON – Gigabit Passive Optical Network

GPP – General Purposes Processing

GPRS – General Packet Radio Service

GPS – Global Positioning System

GPU – Graphics Processing Unit

GSA – Global mobile Suppliers Association

GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications

GSMA – GSM Association

GUI – Graphical User Interface



HALT – Highly Accelerated Life Testing

HASL – Hot Air Solder Level

HASS – Highly Accelerated Stress Screening

HAST – Highly Accelerated Stress Testing

HB – Half Brick

HDR – High Data Rate

HEMT – High Electron Mobility Transistors

HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle

HMI – Human Machine Interface

HPC – High Performance Computing

HPDC – High Performance Data Center

HRR – Hybrid Regulated Ratio

HS – Harmonized System

HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet Access

HSPA – High-Speed Packet Access

HTS – Harmonized Tariff Schedule

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol

HV – High Voltage

HVAC – Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

HVDC – High Voltage Direct Current (converter)

HW – Hardware



I/O – Input/Output

I2C – Inter-Integrated circuit Communication (bus)

I3C – Improved Inter-Integrated circuit Communication (bus)

IBA – Intermediate Bus Architecture

IBC – Intermediate Bus Converter

IBV – Intermediate Bus Voltage

IC – Integrated Circuit

IDC – Internet Data Center

IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission

IEE – Institution of Electrical Engineers

IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

ICS – Industrial Control Systems

ICT – Information and Communication Technology

IDU – Indoor Unit

IGBT – Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IHV – Independent Hardware Vendor

IoE – Internet of Everything

IoT – Internet of Things

IIoT – Industrial Internet of Things (Industry 4.0)

IMDS – International Material Data System

IMS – Insulated Metal Substrate or IP Multimedia Subsystem

IOR – Input-Output Ratio

IP – Internet Protocol or Intellectual Property or International Protection

IPMI – Intelligent Platform Management Interface

IPS – Integrated Power Systems

IPU – Image or Intelligence Processing Unit

IR – Infrared (Reflow)

IRR – Initial Return Rate

ISO – International Organization for Standardization

ISV – Independent Software Vendor

ITAR – International Trade in Arms Regulations



JEDEC – Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council

JFET – Junction Field Effect Transistor

JIT – Just In Time

JTAG – Joint Test Action Group





LAN – Local Area Network

LCC – Inductor-Capacitor-Capacitor (resonant converter)

LDMOS – Laterally Diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor

LDO – Low Dropout (voltage regulator)

LFM – Linear Feet per Minute (airflow)

LGA – Land Grid Array

LLC – Inductor-Inductor-Capacitor (resonant converter)

LPF – Low Pass Filter

LPWA – Low Power Wide Area

LSB – Least Significant Bit

LTB – Last Time Buy

LTE – Long Term Evolution

LTRR – Long Term Return Rate

LVD – Low Voltage Directive



M2M – Machine to Machine

MAC – Media Access Control (address)

MBA – Multi Beam Antenna

MBPA – Multi Beam Phased Array

MCU – Microcontroller Unit

MEC – Mobile Edge Computing

MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output

MLB – Multi Layer Board

MLCC – Multi Layer Ceramic Capacitor

mMIMO – Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output

mMTC – Massive Machine Type Communication

mmW – Millimeter Wave

MNO – Mobile Network Operator

MOOP – Means Of Operator Protection

MOP – Means of Protection

MOPP – Means of Patient Protection

MOQ – Minimum Order Quantity

MOSFET – Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

MOV – Metal Oxide Varistor

MPQ – Minimum Package Quantity

MRP – Materials Requirement Planning

MRT – Multi Resonant Topology

MSB – Most Significant Bit

MSC – Mobile Switching Center

MSL – Moisture Sensitivity Level

MTBF – Mean Time Between Failures

MTTF – Mean Time To Failure

MTTR – Mean Time To Repair

MUX – Multiplexer

MVNO – Mobile Virtual Network Operator



NACK – Negative Acknowledgement

NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement

NAT – Network Address Translation

NB-IoT – Narrow Band Internet of Things

NCNR – Non-Cancellable Non-Returnable

NDA – Non-Disclosure Agreement

NEBS – Network Equipment Building System

NEMA – National Electronic Manufacturers Association

NFF – No Fault Found

NFV – Network Function Virtualization

NGMN – Next Generation Mobile Networks (alliance)

NLR – Non-Linear Response

NPI – New Product Introduction

NPR – New Product Requirement

NR – New Radio (5G) or Notch Resonance

NRE – Non-Recurring Engineering (charge)

NTC – Negative Temperature Coefficient

NVM – Non-Volatile Memory

NRND – Not Recommended for New Designs



OADM – Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

OBC – On Board Charger

OCP – Over Current Protection or Open Compute Project

OCV – Open Circuit Voltage

ODM – Original Design Manufacturer

ODSC – Outdoor Small Cell

ODU – Outdoor Unit or Open Distributed Unit

OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer

OES – Open Enterprise Server

OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

OLT – Optical Line Termination

ONT – Optical Network Terminal

ORU – Open Radio Unit

O-RAN – Open Radio Access Network (Alliance)

OT – Operational Technology

OTP – Over Temperature Protection

OVP – Over Voltage Protection

OXC – Optical cross-connect



PA – Power Amplifier

PAA – Phased Array Antenna

PAE – Power Added Efficiency

PAPR – Peak to Average Power Ratio

PBT – Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (chemicals)

PBX – Private Branch Exchange

PCB – Printed Circuit Board

PCBA – Printed Circuit Board Assembly

PCI – Peripheral Component Interface

PCIe – Peripheral Component Interface Express

PCN – Product Change Notification

PD – Powered Device

PDCP – Packet Data Convergence Protocol

PDE – Partial Differential Equation

PDN – Product Discontinuation Notice or Power Distribution Network or Power Delivery Network

PDU – Power Distribution Unit

PE – Polyethylene

PEC – Packet Error Checking

PER – Packet Error Rate

PF – Power Factor

PFC – Power Factor Correction

PG – Power Good

PHY – Physical Layer

PID – Proportional Integral Derivative or Packet Identifier

PIM – Power Interface Module

PIP – Pin-In-Paste (reflow soldering through hole parts)

PLC – Programmable Logic Controller or Product Life Cycle or Power Line Communications

PLCM – Product Life Cycle Management

PMBus™ – Power Management Bus

PMIC – Power Management Integrated Circuit

PMU – Power Management Unit

PN – Product Notification

PO – Purchase Order

PoE – Power Over Ethernet

POEP – Power Over Ethernet Plus (PoE+)

PoL – Point of Load (converter)

POLA – Point Of Load Alliance

PON – Passive Optical Network

PoP – Point of Presence

POTS – Plain Old Telephone Service

PPAP – Production Part Approval Process

PPE – Polyphenylene Ether

PPPoE – Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

PR – Parallel Resonance

PRD – Product Requirement Document

PROM – Programmable Read Only Memory

PSA – Power Stamp Alliance

PSE – Power Sourcing Equipment

PSL – Preferred Suppliers List

PSMP – Power Surface Multiplier Package

PSRR – Power Supply Rejection Ratio

PSU – Power Supply Unit

PTC – Positive Temperature Coefficient or Power Temperature Cycling

PTH – Plated Through Hole

PTP – Point To Point

PTMP – Point To Multi Point

PUE – Power Usage Effectiveness

PV – Photovoltaic (inverter)

PVT – Production Validation Testing

PWB – Printed Wiring Board

PWM – Pulse Width Modulation



QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QB – Quarter Brick

QDR – Quad Data Rate

QFN – Quad Flat No-lead

QML – Qualified Manufacturers List

QMS – Quality Management System

QoS – Quality of Service



RAM – Random Access Memory

RAN – Radio Access Network

RBS – Radio Base Station

RC – Remote Control (on/off)

RCI – Rack Cooling Index

REACH – Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of CHemicals

RF – Radio Frequency

RFI – Radio Frequency Interference or Request For Information

RFP – Request For Proposal

RFPA – Radio Frequency Power Amplifier

RFQ – Request For Quotation

RH – Relative Humidity

RIC – RAN Intelligent Controller

RLC – Radio Link Control

RMA – Returned Material Authorization

RMS – Root Mean Square

RNC – Radio Network Controller

ROADM – Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

RoHS – Restriction of Hazardous Substances

ROM – Read Only Memory or Rough Order of Magnitude

RRC – Radio Resource Control

RRH – Remote Radio Head

RRU – Remote Radio Unit

RS – Recommended Standard (e.g. RS232, RS485 etc.)

RSM – Regional Sales Manager

RTU – Remote Terminal Unit

RU – Radio Unit or Rack Unit

RX – Receive



SA – Serial Address

SALERT – SMBus Alert

SAN – Storage Area Network

SB – Sixteenth Brick

SCADA – Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

SCAR – Supplier Corrective Action Request

SCC – Switched Capacitance Converter or Short Circuit Current

SCIP – Substances of Concern In articles, as such or in complex objects (Products)

SCL – Serial Clock Line

SCP – Short Circuit Protection

SCR – Silicon Controlled Rectifier

SCSI – Small Computer System Interface

SDA – Serial Data line

SDH – Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SDN – Software Defined Networking

SDR – Single Data Rate

SELV – Safety Extra Low Voltage

SFOC – Sensorless Field Oriented Control

SI – Système International

SiC – Silicon Carbide

SIP – Single Inline Package or System In Package or Session Initiation Protocol

SKU – Stock Keeping Unit

SMA – Surface Mount Assembly

SMBus – System Management Bus

SMD – Surface Mount Device

SMP – Surface Mount Package

SMPS – Switched Mode Power Supply

SMT – Surface Mount Technology

SOA – Safe Operating Area

SoC – System on Chip or Statement of Compliance

SOIC – Small Outline Integrated Circuit

SON – Self Organizing Network

SONET – Synchronous Optical Networking

SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface

SPQ – Standard Package Quantity

SPS – Standby Power Supply

SQL – Structured Query Language

SR – Series Resonance

SRAM – Static Random Access Memory

SRC – Series Resonant Converter

SRF – Series Resonant Frequency

SSD – Solid State Drive

STC – Switched Tank Capacitor

STEP – Standard for the Exchange of Product model data

SVHC – Substances of Very High Concern

SVID – Serial Voltage Identifier

SW – Software

SWaP-C – Size, Weight, Power and Cost

SWG – Standard Wire Gauge



T&R – Tape and Reel

TCE – Thermal Coefficient of Expansion

TCO – Total Cost of Ownership

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

TD-SCDMA – Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access

TDD – Time Division Duplexing

TDM – Time Division Multiplexing

TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access

TDP – Thermal Design Power

TH – Through Hole

THD – Total Harmonic Distortion

THT – Through Hole Technology

TIA – Telecommunications Industries Association

TIM – Thermal Interface Material

TIP – Telecom Infra Project

TLVR – Trans-Inductor Voltage Regulator

TMA – Tower Mounted Amplifier

TPU – Tensor Processing Unit

TSCA – Toxic Substances Control Act

TTL – Transistor Transistor Logic

TUV – Technischer Uberwachungs Verein

TVS – Transient Voltage Suppressor

TX – Transmit



UART – Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

UL – Underwriters Laboratories

UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

UPOE – Universal Power Over Ethernet (PoE++)

UPS – Uninterruptable Power Supply

uRLLC – Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication

USB – Universal Serial Bus

UUT – Unit Under Test

UVLO – Under Voltage Lock Out

UVP – Under Voltage Protection



VCO – Voltage Controlled Oscillator

VDC – Virtual Data Center

VDE – Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker

VID – Voltage Identifier

VFD – Variable Frequency Drive

VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network

VoC – Verification of Conformity

VoIP – Voice over IP (Internet Protocol)

VoLTE – Voice over LTE

VoNR – Voice over New Radio

VPN – Virtual Private Network

VQFN – Very thin Quad Flat No-lead

V-RAN – Virtualized Radio Access Network

VRM – Voltage Regulator Module

VSD – Variable Speed Drive



WAN – Wide Area Network

WAP – Wireless Access Protocol

WBG – Wide Band Gap (semiconductor)

WCDMA – Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (directive)

WiMAX – Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access

WIP – Work In Progress

WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network



XPE – Xilinx Power Estimator



YRR – One Year Return Rate



ZCS – Zero Current Switching

ZEV – Zero Emission Vehicle

ZIF – Zero Insertion Force

ZVS – Zero Voltage Switching



2G – Second Generation (GSM/D-AMPS/GPRS/EDGE)

3D – 3 Dimensional

3E – Enhanced performance, Energy management, End-user value

3G – Third Generation (UMTS/CDMA2000/HSPA/HSPA+/EVDO)

3GPP – Third Generation Partnership Project

4G – Fourth Generation (LTE/LTE-A/LTE-Pro)

4PPOE – 4-Pair Power Over Ethernet

5G – Fifth Generation (NR)

8D – 8 Discipline (report)

µC – Microcontroller

µTCA - Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture