Sales and commercial

Who is Flex Power Modules?

In October 2017, Flex acquired Ericsson Power Modules which was formed in the late 1970s, and since then we have been trading as Flex Power Modules. We are part of the Power cross industry technology group, and we design and manufacture board-mounted DC/DC conversion products for applications within the telecom (including 5G), data center, AI, industrial and railway markets. More details can be found in the About Us section of our website.

How can I keep up to date with news about your products?

We have a dedicated section of our website for new product notifications. You can also sign up for our email Newsletter. We also have a dedicated LinkedIn page where we discuss our latest updates.

How can I get in contact with someone to discuss my needs?

You can reach out to us by completing the Contact Us form. Should you need to send us any documents or files for review, then for Commercial support please email pm.info@flex.com, and for Technical support please email pm.support@flex.com

Where can I purchase your products?

We have a global network of partners and representatives who are technically trained to support the design-in of our products and are able to offer supply solutions. Please visit our partner page in order to find the right partner for your region.

What are your current lead times?

Since this changes from time to time based on prevailing market supply conditions, contacting your regional partner is the best way to get current lead times, as well as discussing additional supply options. If you have a specific urgent need for parts, then please contact us at pm.info@flex.com

How do I get samples?

Sample requests can be sent to our partners to support new designs. On our partner page you can find a partner for your region.

Where do I find prices?

Please contact our partners for pricing information. On our partner page you can find a partner for your region.

What is the ECCN classification of your products?

At the time of writing, the Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) of all our products is "EAR99".

What is the Country of Origin (COO) of your products?

The Country of Origin (manufacturing location) of our products is either China or Taiwan, depending on the particular family. Specific details can be discussed by contacting us at pm.support@flex.com

What if you don't have what I need listed on your site?

Don't see what you need? We are constantly developing new solutions so please let us know your request by contacting us and we can discuss your specific needs.


How can I get technical support on your products?

We have a global network of partners and representatives technically trained in our products. Please contact our partners. Additionally, you can email your inquiry to pm.support@flex.com, and one of our Application Engineers will respond to your request.

Where do I find life-cycle information about your products?

If you have a question on product life-cycle, please reach out to our partners and representatives or alternatively you can contact us directly. Our representatives can answer questions about the product life-cycle for all the products found on our web pages. Products that are marked on our site as "Legacy" are not necessarily discontinued, since we continue to support production for our existing customers, but they are not generally recommended for new designs.

How will I be informed about product/process changes and end of life statements?

When we have a PCN or PDN to issue, these will be shared with our Channel Partners who will feed the information down to affected customers that have been active typically within the previous 3 years or so.

What is the warranty on your products?

Flex warrants that, during a period of three (3) years from the date of manufacturing of the product, unless another time period is explicitly agreed in the Sales Contract, the product will be free from major defects in material and workmanship, and will meet the agreed technical specification in all major aspects.

How can I arrange an RMA/FAR for your products?

If for any reason you need to return products for failure analysis, this should be done through the originally-sourced channel. If this was via one of our Channel Partners, then you will find their contact information on our partner page. Otherwise, you can contact us directly at pm.support@flex.com to request an RMA.

Where can I find safety certifications for your products?

Please contact us at pm.support@flex.com for information. We will be happy to provide these on request.

Where can I find details about your RoHS and REACH compliance?

Our RoHS statement of compliance can be found HERE, while our REACH statement of compliance can be found HERE

Do your devices meet the 62368-1 safety standard?

Yes, as of the 1st November 2020, ALL of our products have been successfully recertified to meet IEC/EN/UL/CSA 62368-1 (Audio/Video, Information and Communication Technology Equipment - Part 1: Safety Requirements), which will replace the IEC/EN/UL/CSA 60950-1 standard from 20th December 2020. A Product Notice document can be found HERE, and individual certificates are available on request by emailing us at pm.support@flex.com

Do you offer AC/DC products?

At the time of writing we do not offer AC/DC products, and focus all of our efforts on developing the very best DC/DC solutions for your needs.

Do you offer EN50155 compliant DC/DC converters for Railway applications?

Yes we do! We have a wide and growing range of DC/DC converters that meet the requirements of EN50155 which is the global standard in use for electronic equipment used on rolling stock in railway applications. Additional information can be found in this Article, and specific queries can be discussed by contacting us at pm.support@flex.com

What type of input filter do I need to reduce conducted noise?

This is dependent on the particular module in question. Our technical specifications for isolated devices typically provide EMI conducted noise plots both with and without additional external filtering, and the filter suggestions provided are to meet Class B conducted noise emissions according to EN55022/EN55032, CISPR22/CISPR32 and FCC part 15J.

Do you offer filter modules for EMC compliance?

We do not offer dedicated EMC filter modules currently, but we do offer Power Interface Modules or PIMs, some of which do contain EMC filtering as well as many other useful features such as OR-ing, Hot Swap, Hold-Up voltage boost and Auxiliary voltage rails. More details of these products can be found by clicking HERE.

Can I connect your products in series?

It may be the case that a particular module cannot deliver the specific voltage required by a particular application.

In these cases, it's good to know that our products can typically be connected in series to produce these alternative voltages.

For example, it’s possible to connect the outputs of two 30V converters in series to produce a 60V rail. It may be necessary to include protection circuitry however to disable one device if the other one turns off for any reason.

Our FAEs can support your designs by contacting us at pm.support@flex.com

Can I connect your products in parallel?

Sometimes, a single module will not provide the required level of current or power needed in a particular application. In these cases, it's often desirable to connect devices in parallel.

Whether or not this is possible with our products is actually device dependent, so please consult the technical specification of the device in question to check if this is advisable.

Some modules include a voltage droop current share mechanism, while others include an active current share scheme. Some devices are not recommended for paralleling at all, or will need external current share control circuitry.

Design Note DN006 goes into more detail about this, or one of our FAEs can also support you by contacting us at pm.support@flex.com

What do the different ratios of 2:1, 4:1 etc. refer to?

These ratios usually describe the input voltage range of a converter. As an example, a 2:1 input ratio converter suitable for a 48 V nominal supply would have a voltage range of 36-72 V typically, although this is often extended to 75 V. An equivalent 4:1 converter would have an input range of 18-72/75 V, making it actually suitable for both 48 V and 24 V nominal supplies. Another version of a 4:1 range includes 9-36 V, which would be suitable for both 12 V and 24 V nominal supplies. Our product range now even includes devices such as the PKM-W series for the Railway market with >13:1 input ratios, operating over an input voltage range of 12-160 V.

The term can however also be used to refer to the effective transformer turns ratio between input and output of an unregulated converter. For example, for an unregulated device with a 4:1 "turns ratio", and an input voltage range of 40-60 V, the output voltage will range from 10-15 V. For example, when supplied with a 48 V input, the output would be at 12 V.

Can I use active trimming on your converters?

The output voltage of many, but not all, of our converters can be trimmed actively using a voltage source. Please consult the specific technical specification for the device in question. Our FAEs can also guide you by contacting us at pm.support@flex.com

How do I connect the sense lines?

Many DC/DC modules provide sense pins which enable the output to compensate voltage droops due to the copper resistance of the traces of application boards.

Note that the DC/DC converters accurately regulate the voltage between +sense and -sense pins, not the voltage on the output pins. Voltage droops of up to 0.25-0.5V may be compensated if the sense pins are connected to the corresponding terminals of the load.

However, to avoid noise, the sense traces should be properly routed to minimize the area between them, i.e. they should be as short as possible and close to each other.

If not used, the sense pins should be connected directly to the corresponding output pins.

What standard do you use to calculate MTBF?

The failure rate and mean time between failures (MTBF) are typically calculated at max output power and an operating ambient temperature of +40°C. We mainly use Telcordia SR-332 Issue 2 Method 1 to calculate the mean steady-state failure rate and standard deviation. Telcordia SR-332 Issue 2 also provides techniques to estimate the upper confidence levels of failure rates based on the mean and standard deviation. Our Technical Specifications therefore typically provide both a standard MTBF figure, and an MTBF figure at 90% confidence factor.

Some of our devices designed for Industrial and Rail applications also include MTBF calculations based on the MIL-HDBK-217F reliability method. Please check individual Technical Specifications for more details.

How should I accurately measure the Output Ripple?

Please refer to DN022 for detailed information on measuring Output Ripple. Our FAEs can also guide you by contacting us at pm.support@flex.com

How do I convert airflow from LFM or m/s to CFM and vice versa?

Firstly, to convert common values of air velocity in meters per second to Linear Feet per Minute (LFM), you can use the table below which shows common approximations:

0.25 m/s = 50 LFM
0.5 m/s = 100 LFM
1.0 m/s = 200 LFM
1.5 m/s = 300 LFM
2.0 m/s = 400 LFM
2.5 m/s = 500 LFM
3.0 m/s = 600 LFM

When considering the air volume that is being moved rather than simply its velocity, which is commonly used by fan manufacturers for example, then Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) is often referred to as the unit of measurement.

To convert CFM measurements to LFM, use the following equation:


Where CFM = Cubic feet per minute of air volume and AREA = the area of the opening in square feet.

Do you offer thermal models for your DC/DC products?

Yes, we offer FloTHERM models which are available for many of our products in .PDML file format. Those available are presented both on the relevant product landing pages, and in the Downloads section. If you can't find the specific one you need, then please contact us at pm.support@flex.com

Do you offer 3D CAD files?

Yes, we offer 3D STEP files in .STP format for many of our modules. We don't generally publish them online due to the wide number of different mechanical options that exist (pin types, pin lengths, open frame, baseplated, etc.), but to request a 3D model of the specific part number you need, please contact us at pm.support@flex.com

Do you offer DC/DC converters for 5G RFPA applications?

Yes we offer a wide range of DC/DC converters suitable for 5G RFPA RRH/RRU designs powering both LDMOS and GaN RF transistor technology. As well as providing solutions to the traditional WW Radio manufacturers, we are also actively working with members of both OpenRAN (Telecom Infra Project) and the O-RAN Alliance, and our RFPA product offering can be seen HERE, with many more devices currently in development, so please contact us if you don't see what you need. Of course, these products are also suitable for other 4G-LTE, 4G, 3G and 2G applications, as well as Microwave fronthaul, midhaul and backhaul radios and Point to Point (PTP) and Point to Multipoint (PTMP) designs.

Do you offer DC/DC converters for Gate Drive applications?

Yes we offer both symmetric and asymmetric dual output devices suitable for Gate Drive applications to power Silicon, IGBT, SiC and GaN designs. Available power levels are from 1-2 W, and isolation voltages of up to 6kV are available. An example of a standard output voltage combination is +15V/-9V for IGBT designs, but more variants are being added to this range all the time, so please contact us to discuss your specific needs in this area.

What protection features do your products offer?

Please consult the specific technical specification for the device in question for details, but typically our products include input Under Voltage Lock Out (UVLO), output Over Voltage Protection (OVP), output Over Current Protection (OCP) and Over Temperature Protection (OTP). Digital products offer the ability to configure both the protection parameters as well as the protection behavior.

What does "hiccup mode" protection mean?

The term "hiccup mode" in this case refers to a form of overload protection mechanism, for example over current protection, where if an output over current is detected, then the module will continuously disable the output and then make continuous restart attempts until the fault is removed.

What's the difference between Isolation & Insulation levels?

The isolation level of an isolated DC/DC converter usually refers to the voltage which may be applied between input and output for a short duration without current flowing, usually as a result of the breakdown of the insulation material used to provide the galvanic isolation. For baseplated converters, the isolation level from Output to Baseplate and Input to Baseplate are also usually tested and specified.

The Insulation Level on the other hand refers to the method used to physically provide the galvanic isolation, and is usually characterized in 5 different classes – Functional/Operational; Basic; Supplementary; Double and Reinforced.

More information is available in Technical Paper 018

What is meant by transient response?

When the load current at the output of a converter changes suddenly, there will be a reaction by the output voltage falling or rising suddenly too. The ability of the converters control loop to correct this change to the output voltage quickly and controllably back to the setpoint value is known as its transient response. The key parameters to consider in terms of transient response are typically the overshoot/undershoot voltage and the settling/recovery time, both of which should be minimized.

More information on optimizing transient response in Digital POLs can be found in Application Note 306

How should I store and handle your products?

Products intended for Pb-free reflow soldering processes are delivered in standard moisture barrier bags according to IPC/JEDEC standard J-STD-033 (handling, packing, shipping and use of moisture/reflow sensitivity surface mount devices).

Using products in high temperature Pb-free soldering processes requires dry pack storage and handling. In case the products have been stored in an uncontrolled environment and no longer can be considered dry, the modules must be baked according to J-STD-033.

Please note that our products are to be stored and handled as ESD sensitive devices and are delivered as such.

Can I use water washing during manufacturing?

Products are qualified for water washing (as well as Glycol Ether and Isopropyl alcohol washing) according to IEC 60068-2-45 XA, method 2. However, it is imperative that sufficient drying time is considered to avoid any problems. Our FAEs can also guide you by contacting us at pm.support@flex.com

Flex Power Designer

What is the Flex Power Designer tool?

We have developed the Flex Power Designer tool in order to help you to sketch, simulate, configure and monitor your digital power system. It is free to download the Flex Power Designer Tool. You can watch a short demonstration video HERE.

What are the key features of the Flex Power Designer tool?

Flex Power Designer (FPD) goes beyond simple converter configuration, and provides an overview of your whole power system, enabling you to define relationships across rails, including Phase Spreading, Sequencing and Fault Spreading.

The built-in simulation enables power-stage analysis to optimize tuning and visualize design behavior against your particular power requirements such as Transient Response, Output Impedance and Power Dissipation.

The software also includes thermal behavior simulation, graphically showing the dependencies between multiple user defined parameters such as ambient temperature, board temperature, wind speed, board thickness and copper thickness.

An additional feature recently added is a numerical conversion calculator which enables designers to work with the various alternative number formats for monitoring data allowed in the SMBus/PMBus standards. It also includes a display address resistor suggestion feature, which calculates suggested values for the PMBus address resistors SA0/SA1, as well as offering the ability to monitor common parameters from other vendors' power products.

It is free to download the Flex Power Designer Tool

A brief introduction to the key features of Flex Power Designer can be seen below.

How does the Flex Power Designer tool interact with Xilinx's Power Estimator tool?

The latest major upgrade to Flex Power Designer (4.0 and above) has now added the ability to import the .xpe output files from Xilinx's Power Estimator Tool to allow for easy power tree creation and optimization for Xilinx FPGAs. Families such as the Virtex Ultrascale+ and Kintex Ultrascale+ are currently supported, and more families will be added continuously. You can view a demo of the new features of this version of Flex Power Designer in the webinar recording below.


How do I use parametric search?

The parametric search is a tool to help you to quickly find products that meet your specific requirements. You can easily access the parametric search from the homepage. Parametric search has many different search fields, which by filling in your needed criteria will automatically return only matching products to enable you to hone in on the optimum solution(s).

Why should I create an account?

By creating your own account, you can immediately access the Flex Power Designer Tool rather than having to enter your full contact details again. In future updates to this section, we will also include the ability to save details of your selected products in one place, as well as adding other useful functions.

I forgot my password! How do I reset it?

You can easily reset your password by clicking HERE

Key to commonly used abbreviations

Here's a handy list of abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms commonly used within our industry


A/D – Analog to Digital

AAS – Advanced Antenna Systems

AC – Alternating Current

AC/DC – Alternating Current to Direct Current (converter / power supply)

ACK – Acknowledgement

ACS – Active Current Sharing or American Chemical Society

ADC – Analog to Digital Converter

ADM – Add/Drop Multiplexer

ADSL – Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line

AGV – Automated Guided Vehicle

AI – Artificial Intelligence

AISG – Antenna Interface Standards Group

AMC – Advanced Mezzanine Card

AMP – Architects of Modern Power or Amplifier

AMR – Autonomous Mobile Robot

ANSI – American National Standards Institute

AOI – Automated Optical Inspection

AON – Active Optical Network

AP – Access Point

API – Application Programming Interface

APM – Advanced Power Management

APT – Average Power Tracking

APU – Accelerated Processing Unit

AR – Augmented Reality

AS – Access Server

ART – Adaptive Ramp-up Time

ASCR – A Single Cycle Response (digital compensator)

ASIC – Application Specific Integrated Circuit

ASSP – Application Specific Standard Product

ATCA – Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture

ATE – Automatic Test Equipment

ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode

AVA – Analog Voltage Adjust

AVL – Approved Vendor List

AVS – Adaptive Voltage Scaling

AVSBus – Adaptive Voltage Scaling Bus

AWG – American Wire Gauge


BBU – Baseband Unit or Battery Back Up

BGA – Ball Grid Array / solder Bump Grid Array

BJT – Bipolar Junction Transistor

BMP – Board Mounted Power

BMS – Battery Management System

BoM – Bill of Materials

BSC – Base Station Controller

BSI – British Standards Institute

BSS – Base Station System

BTS – Base Transceiver Station


CA – Controller Assembly

CAD – Computer Aided Design

CAGR – Compound Annual Growth Rate

CAN – Controller Area Network (bus)

CAN FD – Controller Area Network Flexible Data-rate

CAS – Chemical Abstracts Service (number)

CB – Certification Body

CC – Constant Current

CCM – Continuous Conduction Mode

CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access

CE – Conformité Européenne (European Conformity) or Customer Edge

CEN – Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Committee for Standardization)

CENELEC – Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)

CEM – Contract Electronics Manufacturer

CFD – Computational Fluid Dynamics

CFM – Cubic Feet per Minute (airflow)

CM – Common Mode (noise/choke)

CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

CMRR – Common Mode Rejection Ratio

CMRT – Conflict Minerals Reporting Template

CMTI – Common Mode Transient Immunity

CoC – Certificate of Conformance

CoO – Country of Origin

COTS – Commercial Off The Shelf

CPA – Centralized Power Architecture

CPE – Customer Premises Equipment

CPU – Central Processing Unit

CQC – China Quality Certification

C-RAN – Centralized Radio Access Network

CSA – Canadian Standards Association

CSV – Comma Separated Values

CTI – Comparative Tracking Index

CU – Centralized Unit

CV – Constant Voltage

CWDM – Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing

CXL – Compute eXpress Link


D-AMPS – Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System

D/A – Digital to Analog

DAC – Digital to Analog Converter

DAP – Delivered At Place

DAS – Distributed Antenna System

DBF – Digital Beam Forming

DBV – Dynamic Bus Voltage

DC – Direct Current

DC/AC – Direct Current to Alternating Current (inverter)

DC/DC – Direct Current to Direct Current (converter)

DCL – Decision Logic or Data Control Language

DCM – Discontinuous Conduction Mode

DCR – Direct Current Resistance (measurement)

DCS – Distributed Control System

DDP – Delivered Duty Paid

DDR – Double Data Rate (memory)

DFE – Design For the Environment

DFM – Design For Manufacturability

DiCon – Direct Conversion

DIL – Dual InLine (package)

DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardisation)

DIP – Dual Inline Package

DLC – Dynamic Loop Compensation

DLS – Droop Load Sharing

DMUX – Demultiplexer

DOSA – Distributed-power Open Standards Alliance

DOW – Date Of Withdrawal

DPA – Distributed Power Architecture

DPM – Digital Power Management or Dynamic Power Management

DPoL – Digital Point of Load (converter)

DPWM – Digital Pulse Width Modulation or Discontinuous Pulse Width Modulation

DRAM – Dynamic Random Access Memory

DSL – Digital Subscriber Line

DSLAM – Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer

DSP – Digital Signal Processor

DTI – Distance Through Insulation

DTC – Direct Torque Control

DU – Distributed Unit

DUT – Device Under Test

DVT – Design Validation Testing

DWDM – Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing


E2E – End to End

EAR – Export Administration Regulations

EB – Eighth Brick

EBITDA – Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization

EC – Engineering Change or Edge Computing

ECHA – European CHemicals Agency

ECN – Export Control Notice

ECCN – Export Control Classification Number

EDGE – Enhanced Data for Global Evolution

EDI – Electronic Data Interchange

EDP – Electrical Design Power or Electronic Data Processing

EFT – Electrical Fast Transient

EIA – Electronic Industries Association

ELV – Extra Low Voltage

EMAC – Ethernet Media Access Control (address)

EMBB – Enhanced Mobile BroadBand

EMC – Electromagnetic Compatibility

EMF – Electromotive Force

EMI – Electromagnetic Interference

EMR – Electromagnetic Radiation

EMS – Electronic Manufacturing Services

EN – Norme Européen (European Standard)

eNB – Evolved NodeB

ENIG – Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold

EOL – End Of Life

EPON – Ethernet Passive Optical Network

EPROM – Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

ERI – Early Return Index

ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning

ESD – Electrostatic Discharge

ESL – Equivalent Series Inductance

ESR – Equivalent Series Resistance

ESS – Environmental Stress Screening

ET – Envelope Tracking

ETA – Estimated Time of Arrival

ETD – Estimated Time of Departure

EUT – Equipment Under Test

EV – Electric Vehicle

EVDO – Evolution Data Optimized

EVT – Engineering Validation Testing

EXW – Ex Works


FAE – Field Application Engineer

FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions

FAR – Failure Analysis Report

FCA – Free Carrier

FCC – Federal Communications Commission

FDD – Frequency Division Duplex

FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access

FEA – Finite Element Analysis

FEM – Finite Element Method

FET – Field Effect Transistor

FFT – Fast Fourier Transform

FIT – Failure In Time

FMD – Full Material Declaration

FOB – Free On Board

FPD – Flex Power Designer

FPGA – Field Programmable Gate Array

FPM – Flex Power Modules

FTTx – Fiber To The "x" (Premises/Home/Building/Cabinet/Node etc.)

FWA – Fixed Wireless Access


GAM – Global Account Manager

GaN – Gallium Nitride

GCB – Group Communication Bus

GCM – Global Commodity Management

GMSL – Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link

gNB – Next Generation NodeB

GND – Ground

GPIB – General Purpose Interface Bus

GPIO – General Purpose Input/Output

GPON – Gigabit Passive Optical Network

GPP – General Purposes Processing

GPRS – General Packet Radio Service

GPS – Global Positioning System

GPU – Graphics Processing Unit

GSA – Global mobile Suppliers Association

GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications

GSMA – GSM Association

GUI – Graphical User Interface


HALT – Highly Accelerated Life Testing

HASL – Hot Air Solder Level

HASS – Highly Accelerated Stress Screening

HAST – Highly Accelerated Stress Testing

HB – Half Brick

HEMT – High Electron Mobility Transistors

HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle

HMI – Human Machine Interface

HPC – High Performance Computing

HPDC – High Performance Data Center

HRR – Hybrid Regulated Ratio

HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet Access

HSPA – High-Speed Packet Access

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol

HV – High Voltage

HVAC – Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

HVDC – High Voltage Direct Current (converter)

HW – Hardware


I/O – Input/Output

I2C – Inter-Integrated Circuit (bus)

IBA – Intermediate Bus Architecture

IBC – Intermediate Bus Converter

IBV – Intermediate Bus Voltage

IDC – Internet Data Center

IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission

IEE – Institution of Electrical Engineers

IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

ICS – Industrial Control Systems

ICT – Information and Communication Technology

IDU – Indoor Unit

IGBT – Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IoE – Internet of Everything

IoT – Internet of Things

IIoT – Industrial Internet of Things (Industry 4.0)

IMS – Insulated Metal Substrate or IP Multimedia Subsystem

IP – Internet Protocol or Intellectual Property or International Protection

IPMI – Intelligent Platform Management Interface

IPU – Image or Intelligence Processing Unit

IR – Infrared (Reflow)

IRR – Initial Return Rate

ISO – International Organization for Standardization


JEDEC – Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council

JFET – Junction Field Effect Transistor

JIT – Just In Time

JTAG – Joint Test Action Group



LAN – Local Area Network

LDO – Low Dropout (voltage regulator)

LFM – Linear Feet per Minute (airflow)

LGA – Land Grid Array

LLC – Inductor-Inductor-Capacitor (resonant converter)

LPF – Low Pass Filter

LPWA – Low Power Wide Area

LSB – Least Significant Bit

LTB – Last Time Buy

LTE – Long Term Evolution

LTRR – Long Term Return Rate

LVD – Low Voltage Directive


M2M – Machine to Machine

MAC – Media Access Control (address)

MCU – Microcontroller Unit

MEC – Mobile Edge Computing

MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output

MLB – Multi Layer Board

MLCC – Multi Layer Ceramic Capacitor

MMIMO – Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output

MMTC – Massive Machine Type Communication

MOOP – Means Of Operator Protection

MOP – Means of Protection

MOPP – Means of Patient Protection

MOQ – Minimum Order Quantity

MOSFET – Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

MOV – Metal Oxide Varistor

MPQ – Minimum Package Quantity

MRP – Materials Requirement Planning

MRT – Multi Resonant Topology

MSB – Most Significant Bit

MSL – Moisture Sensitivity Level

MTBF – Mean Time Between Failures

MTTF – Mean Time To Failure

MTTR – Mean Time To Repair

MUX – Multiplexer


NACK – Negative Acknowledgement

NAT – Network Address Translation

NCNR – Non-Cancellable Non-Returnable

NDA – Non-Disclosure Agreement

NEBS – Network Equipment Building System

NEMA – National Electronic Manufacturers Association

NFF – No Fault Found

NFV – Network Functions Virtualization

NGMN – Next Generation Mobile Networks (alliance)

NLR – Non-Linear Response

NPI – New Product Introduction

NPR – New Product Requirement

NR – New Radio (5G)

NRE – Non-Recurring Engineering (charge)

NTC – Negative Temperature Coefficient

NVM – Non-Volatile Memory

NRND – Not Recommended for New Designs


OADM – Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

OBC – On Board Charger

OCP – Over Current Protection or Open Compute Project

OCV – Open Circuit Voltage

ODM – Original Design Manufacturer

ODSC – Outdoor Small Cell

ODU – Outdoor Unit or Open Distributed Unit

OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer

OES – Open Enterprise Server

OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

OLT – Optical Line Termination

ONT – Optical Network Terminal

ORU – Open Radio Unit

O-RAN – Open Radio Access Network (Alliance)

OT – Operational Technology

OTP – Over Temperature Protection

OVP – Over Voltage Protection

OXC – Optical cross-connect


PA – Power Amplifier

PAA – Phased Array Antenna

PAPR – Peak to Average Power Ratio

PBX – Private Branch Exchange

PCB – Printed Circuit Board

PCBA – Printed Circuit Board Assembly

PCI – Peripheral Component Interface

PCIe – Peripheral Component Interface Express

PCN – Product Change Notification

PD – Powered Device

PDE – Partial Differential Equation

PDN – Product Discontinuation Notice or Power Distribution Network or Power Delivery Network

PDU – Power Distribution Unit

PE – Polyethylene

PEC – Packet Error Checking

PF – Power Factor

PFC – Power Factor Correction

PG – Power Good

PHY – Physical Layer

PID – Proportional Integral Derivative or Packet Identifier

PIM – Power Interface Module

PIP – Pin-In-Paste (reflow soldering through hole parts)

PLC – Programmable Logic Controller or Product Life Cycle or Power Line Communications

PLCM – Product Life Cycle Management

PMBus – Power Management Bus

PMIC – Power Management Integrated Circuit

PMU – Power Management Unit

PN – Product Notification

PO – Purchase Order

PoE – Power Over Ethernet

POEP – Power Over Ethernet Plus (PoE+)

PoL – Point of Load (converter)

POLA – Point Of Load Alliance

PON – Passive Optical Network

PoP – Point of Presence

POTS – Plain Old Telephone Service

PPE – Polyphenylene Ether

PPPoE – Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

PRD – Product Requirment Document

PROM – Programmable Read Only Memory

PSA – Power Stamp Alliance

PSE – Power Sourcing Equipment

PSL – Preferred Suppliers List

PSMP – Power Surface Multiplier Package

PSU – Power Supply Unit

PTC – Positive Temperature Coefficient or Power Temperature Cycling

PTH – Plated Through Hole

PTP – Point To Point

PTMP – Point To Multi Point

PUE – Power Usage Effectiveness

PV – Photovoltaic (inverter)

PVT – Production Validation Testing

PWB – Printed Wiring Board

PWM – Pulse Width Modulation


QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QB – Quarter Brick

QDR – Quad Data Rate

QFN – Quad Flat No-lead

QML – Qualified Manufacturers List


RAM – Random Access Memory

RAN – Radio Access Network

RC – Remote Control (on/off)

RCI – Rack Cooling Index

REACH – Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of CHemicals

RF – Radio Frequency

RFI – Radio Frequency Interference or Request For Information

RFP – Request For Proposal

RFPA – Radio Frequency Power Amplifier

RFQ – Request For Quotation

RH – Relative Humidity

RIC – RAN Intelligence Controller

RMA – Returned Material Authorization

RMS – Root Mean Square

RNC – Radio Network Controller

ROADM – Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

RoHS – Restriction of Hazardous Substances

ROM – Read Only Memory or Rough Order of Magnitude

RRH – Remote Radio Head

RRU – Remote Radio Unit

RS – Recommended Standard (e.g. RS232, RS485 etc.)

RSM – Regional Sales Manager

RTU – Remote Terminal Unit

RU – Radio Unit or Rack Unit

RX – Receive


SA – Serial Address

SALERT – SMBus Alert

SAN – Storage Area Network

SB – Sixteenth Brick

SCADA – Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

SCC – Switched Capacitance Converter or Short Circuit Current

SCIP – Substances of Concern In articles, as such or in complex objects (Products)

SCL – Serial Clock Line

SCP – Short Circuit Protection

SCR – Silicon Controlled Rectifier

SCSI – Small Computer System Interface

SDA – Serial Data line

SDH – Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SDN – Software Defined Networks

SELV – Safety Extra Low Voltage

SFOC – Sensorless Field Oriented Control

SI – Système International

SiC – Silicon Carbide

SIP – Single Inline Package or Session Initiation Protocol

SKU – Stock Keeping Unit

SMA – Surface Mount Assembly

SMBus – System Management Bus

SMD – Surface Mount Device

SMPS – Switched Mode Power Supply

SMT – Surface Mount Technology

SoC – System on Chip or Statement of Compliance

SOIC – Small Outline Integrated Circuit

SON – Self Organizing Network

SONET – Synchronous Optical Networking

SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface

SPQ – Standard Package Quantity

SPS – Standby Power Supply

SQL – Structured Query Language

SRAM – Static Random Access Memory

SSD – Solid State Drive

STC – Switched Tank Capacitor

STEP – Standard for the Exchange of Product model data

SVHC – Substances of Very High Concern

SVID – Serial Voltage Identifier

SW – Software

SWaP-C – Size, Weight, Power and Cost

SWG – Standard Wire Gauge


T&R – Tape and Reel

TCE – Thermal Coefficient of Expansion

TCO – Total Cost of Ownership

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

TD-SCDMA – Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access

TDD – Time Division Duplexing

TDM – Time Division Multiplexing

TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access

TDP – Thermal Design Power

TH – Through Hole

THD – Total Harmonic Distortion

THT – Through Hole Technology

TIA – Telecommunications Industries Association

TIM – Thermal Interface Material

TIP – Telecom Infra Project

TTL – Transistor Transistor Logic

TUV – Technischer Uberwachungs Verein

TVS – Transient Voltage Suppressor

TX – Transmit


UART – Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

UL – Underwriters Laboratories

UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

UPOE – Universal Power Over Ethernet (PoE++)

UPS – Uninterruptable Power Supply

URLLC – Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication

USB – Universal Serial Bus

UUT – Unit Under Test

UVLO – Under Voltage Lock Out

UVP – Under Voltage Protection


VCO – Voltage Controlled Oscillator

VDC – Virtual Data Center

VDE – Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker

VID – Voltage Identifier

VFD – Variable Frequency Drive

VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network

VoC – Verification of Conformity

VoIP – Voice over IP (Internet Protocol)

VoLTE – Voice over LTE

VoNR – Voice over New Radio

VPN – Virtual Private Network

VQFN – Very thin Quad Flat No-lead

V-RAN – Virtualized Radio Access Network

VRM – Voltage Regulator Module

VSD – Variable Speed Drive


WAN – Wide Area Network

WBG – Wide Band Gap (semiconductor)

WCDMA – Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (directive)

WiMAX – Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access

WIP – Work In Progress

WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network


XPE – Xilinx Power Estimator


YRR – One Year Return Rate


ZCS – Zero Current Switching

ZEV – Zero Emission Vehicle

ZIF – Zero Insertion Force

ZVS – Zero Voltage Switching


2G – Second Generation (GSM/D-AMPS/GPRS/EDGE)

3D – 3 Dimensional

3G – Third Generation (UMTS/CDMA2000/HSPA/HSPA+/EVDO)

3GPP – Third Generation Partnership Project

4G – Fourth Generation (LTE/LTE-A/LTE-Pro)

4PPOE – 4-Pair Power Over Ethernet

5G – Fifth Generation (NR)

µC – Microcontroller

µTCA - Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture