Sales and commercial
Who is Flex Power Modules?
In October 2017, Flex acquired Ericsson Power Modules which was formed in the late 1970s, and since then we have been trading as Flex Power Modules. We are part of the Power cross industry technology group, and we design and manufacture board-mounted DC/DC conversion products for applications within the telecom (including 5G), data center, AI, industrial and railway markets. More details can be found in the About Us section of our website.
How can I keep up to date with news about your products?
How can I get in contact with someone to discuss my needs?
You can reach out to us by completing the Contact Us form. Should you need to send us any documents or files for review, then for Commercial support please email firstname.lastname@example.org, and for Technical support please email email@example.com
Where can I purchase your products?
We have a global network of partners and representatives who are technically trained to support the design-in of our products and are able to offer supply solutions. Please visit our partner page in order to find the right partner for your region.
What are your current lead times?
Since this changes from time to time based on prevailing market supply conditions, contacting your regional partner is the best way to get current lead times, as well as discussing additional supply options. If you have a specific urgent need for parts, then please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
How do I get samples?
Sample requests can be sent to our partners to support new designs. On our partner page you can find a partner for your region.
Where do I find prices?
Please contact our partners for pricing information. On our partner page you can find a partner for your region.
What is the ECCN classification of your products?
At the time of writing, the Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) of all our products is "EAR99".
What is the Country of Origin (COO) of your products?
The Country of Origin (manufacturing location) of our products is either China or Taiwan, depending on the particular family. Specific details can be discussed by contacting us at email@example.com
What if you don't have what I need listed on your site?
Don't see what you need? We are constantly developing new solutions so please let us know your request by contacting us and we can discuss your specific needs.
How can I get technical support on your products?
We have a global network of partners and representatives technically trained in our products. Please contact our partners. Additionally, you can email your inquiry to firstname.lastname@example.org, and one of our Application Engineers will respond to your request.
Where do I find life-cycle information about your products?
If you have a question on product life-cycle, please reach out to our partners and representatives or alternatively you can contact us directly. Our representatives can answer questions about the product life-cycle for all the products found on our web pages. Products that are marked on our site as "Legacy" are not necessarily discontinued, since we continue to support production for our existing customers, but they are not generally recommended for new designs.
How will I be informed about product/process changes and end of life statements?
When we have a PCN or PDN to issue, these will be shared with our Channel Partners who will feed the information down to affected customers that have been active typically within the previous 3 years or so.
What is the warranty on your products?
Flex warrants that, during a period of three (3) years from the date of manufacturing of the product, unless another time period is explicitly agreed in the Sales Contract, the product will be free from major defects in material and workmanship, and will meet the agreed technical specification in all major aspects.
How can I arrange an RMA/FAR for your products?
If for any reason you need to return products for failure analysis, this should be done through the originally-sourced channel. If this was via one of our Channel Partners, then you will find their contact information on our partner page. Otherwise, you can contact us directly at email@example.com to request an RMA.
Where can I find safety certifications for your products?
Please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org for information. We will be happy to provide these on request.
Where can I find details about your RoHS and REACH compliance?
Do your devices meet the 62368-1 safety standard?
Yes, as of the 1st November 2020, ALL of our products have been successfully recertified to meet IEC/EN/UL/CSA 62368-1 (Audio/Video, Information and Communication Technology Equipment - Part 1: Safety Requirements), which will replace the IEC/EN/UL/CSA 60950-1 standard from 20th December 2020. A Product Notice document can be found HERE, and individual certificates are available on request by emailing us at email@example.com
Do you offer AC/DC products?
At the time of writing we do not offer AC/DC products, and focus all of our efforts on developing the very best DC/DC solutions for your needs.
Do you offer EN50155 compliant DC/DC converters for Railway applications?
Yes we do! We have a wide and growing range of DC/DC converters that meet the requirements of EN50155 which is the global standard in use for electronic equipment used on rolling stock in railway applications. Additional information can be found in this Article, and specific queries can be discussed by contacting us at firstname.lastname@example.org
What type of input filter do I need to reduce conducted noise?
This is dependent on the particular module in question. Our technical specifications for isolated devices typically provide EMI conducted noise plots both with and without additional external filtering, and the filter suggestions provided are to meet Class B conducted noise emissions according to EN55022/EN55032, CISPR22/CISPR32 and FCC part 15J.
Do you offer filter modules for EMC compliance?
We do not offer dedicated EMC filter modules currently, but we do offer Power Interface Modules or PIMs, some of which do contain EMC filtering as well as many other useful features such as OR-ing, Hot Swap, Hold-Up voltage boost and Auxiliary voltage rails. More details of these products can be found by clicking HERE.
Can I connect your products in series?
It may be the case that a particular module cannot deliver the specific voltage required by a particular application.
In these cases, it's good to know that our products can typically be connected in series to produce these alternative voltages.
For example, it’s possible to connect the outputs of two 30V converters in series to produce a 60V rail. It may be necessary to include protection circuitry however to disable one device if the other one turns off for any reason.
Our FAEs can support your designs by contacting us at email@example.com
Can I connect your products in parallel?
Sometimes, a single module will not provide the required level of current or power needed in a particular application. In these cases, it's often desirable to connect devices in parallel.
Whether or not this is possible with our products is actually device dependent, so please consult the technical specification of the device in question to check if this is advisable.
Some modules include a voltage droop current share mechanism, while others include an active current share scheme. Some devices are not recommended for paralleling at all, or will need external current share control circuitry.
What do the different ratios of 2:1, 4:1 etc. refer to?
These ratios usually describe the input voltage range of a converter. As an example, a 2:1 input ratio converter suitable for a 48 V nominal supply would have a voltage range of 36-72 V typically, although this is often extended to 75 V. An equivalent 4:1 converter would have an input range of 18-72/75 V, making it actually suitable for both 48 V and 24 V nominal supplies. Another version of a 4:1 range includes 9-36 V, which would be suitable for both 12 V and 24 V nominal supplies. Our product range now even includes devices such as the PKM-W series for the Railway market with >13:1 input ratios, operating over an input voltage range of 12-160 V.
The term can however also be used to refer to the effective transformer turns ratio between input and output of an unregulated converter. For example, for an unregulated device with a 4:1 "turns ratio", and an input voltage range of 40-60 V, the output voltage will range from 10-15 V. For example, when supplied with a 48 V input, the output would be at 12 V.
Can I use active trimming on your converters?
The output voltage of many, but not all, of our converters can be trimmed actively using a voltage source. Please consult the specific technical specification for the device in question. Our FAEs can also guide you by contacting us at firstname.lastname@example.org
How do I connect the sense lines?
Many DC/DC modules provide sense pins which enable the output to compensate voltage droops due to the copper resistance of the traces of application boards.
Note that the DC/DC converters accurately regulate the voltage between +sense and -sense pins, not the voltage on the output pins. Voltage droops of up to 0.25-0.5V may be compensated if the sense pins are connected to the corresponding terminals of the load.
However, to avoid noise, the sense traces should be properly routed to minimize the area between them, i.e. they should be as short as possible and close to each other.
If not used, the sense pins should be connected directly to the corresponding output pins.
What standard do you use to calculate MTBF?
The failure rate and mean time between failures (MTBF) are typically calculated at max output power and an operating ambient temperature of +40°C. We mainly use Telcordia SR-332 Issue 2 Method 1 to calculate the mean steady-state failure rate and standard deviation. Telcordia SR-332 Issue 2 also provides techniques to estimate the upper confidence levels of failure rates based on the mean and standard deviation. Our Technical Specifications therefore typically provide both a standard MTBF figure, and an MTBF figure at 90% confidence factor.
Some of our devices designed for Industrial and Rail applications also include MTBF calculations based on the MIL-HDBK-217F reliability method. Please check individual Technical Specifications for more details.
How should I accurately measure the Output Ripple?
How do I convert airflow from LFM or m/s to CFM and vice versa?
Firstly, to convert common values of air velocity in meters per second to Linear Feet per Minute (LFM), you can use the table below which shows common approximations:
0.25 m/s = 50 LFM
0.5 m/s = 100 LFM
1.0 m/s = 200 LFM
1.5 m/s = 300 LFM
2.0 m/s = 400 LFM
2.5 m/s = 500 LFM
3.0 m/s = 600 LFM
When considering the air volume that is being moved rather than simply its velocity, which is commonly used by fan manufacturers for example, then Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) is often referred to as the unit of measurement.
To convert CFM measurements to LFM, use the following equation:
LFM = CFM/AREA
Where CFM = Cubic feet per minute of air volume and AREA = the area of the opening in square feet.
Do you offer thermal models for your DC/DC products?
Yes, we offer FloTHERM models which are available for many of our products in .PDML file format. Those available are presented both on the relevant product landing pages, and in the Downloads section. If you can't find the specific one you need, then please contact us at email@example.com
Do you offer 3D CAD files?
Yes, we offer 3D STEP files in .STP format for many of our modules. We don't generally publish them online due to the wide number of different mechanical options that exist (pin types, pin lengths, open frame, baseplated, etc.), but to request a 3D model of the specific part number you need, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Do you offer DC/DC converters for 5G RFPA applications?
Yes we offer a wide range of DC/DC converters suitable for 5G RFPA RRH/RRU designs powering both LDMOS and GaN RF transistor technology. As well as providing solutions to the traditional WW Radio manufacturers, we are also actively working with members of both OpenRAN (Telecom Infra Project) and the O-RAN Alliance, and our RFPA product offering can be seen HERE, with many more devices currently in development, so please contact us if you don't see what you need. Of course, these products are also suitable for other 4G-LTE, 4G, 3G and 2G applications, as well as Microwave fronthaul, midhaul and backhaul radios and Point to Point (PTP) and Point to Multipoint (PTMP) designs.
Do you offer DC/DC converters for Gate Drive applications?
Yes we offer both symmetric and asymmetric dual output devices suitable for Gate Drive applications to power Silicon, IGBT, SiC and GaN designs. Available power levels are from 1-2 W, and isolation voltages of up to 6kV are available. An example of a standard output voltage combination is +15V/-9V for IGBT designs, but more variants are being added to this range all the time, so please contact us to discuss your specific needs in this area.
What protection features do your products offer?
Please consult the specific technical specification for the device in question for details, but typically our products include input Under Voltage Lock Out (UVLO), output Over Voltage Protection (OVP), output Over Current Protection (OCP) and Over Temperature Protection (OTP). Digital products offer the ability to configure both the protection parameters as well as the protection behavior.
What does "hiccup mode" protection mean?
The term "hiccup mode" in this case refers to a form of overload protection mechanism, for example over current protection, where if an output over current is detected, then the module will continuously disable the output and then make continuous restart attempts until the fault is removed.
What's the difference between Isolation & Insulation levels?
The isolation level of an isolated DC/DC converter usually refers to the voltage which may be applied between input and output for a short duration without current flowing, usually as a result of the breakdown of the insulation material used to provide the galvanic isolation. For baseplated converters, the isolation level from Output to Baseplate and Input to Baseplate are also usually tested and specified.
The Insulation Level on the other hand refers to the method used to physically provide the galvanic isolation, and is usually characterized in 5 different classes – Functional/Operational; Basic; Supplementary; Double and Reinforced.
More information is available in Technical Paper 018
What is meant by transient response?
When the load current at the output of a converter changes suddenly, there will be a reaction by the output voltage falling or rising suddenly too. The ability of the converters control loop to correct this change to the output voltage quickly and controllably back to the setpoint value is known as its transient response. The key parameters to consider in terms of transient response are typically the overshoot/undershoot voltage and the settling/recovery time, both of which should be minimized.
More information on optimizing transient response in Digital POLs can be found in Application Note 306
How should I store and handle your products?
Products intended for Pb-free reflow soldering processes are delivered in standard moisture barrier bags according to IPC/JEDEC standard J-STD-033 (handling, packing, shipping and use of moisture/reflow sensitivity surface mount devices).
Using products in high temperature Pb-free soldering processes requires dry pack storage and handling. In case the products have been stored in an uncontrolled environment and no longer can be considered dry, the modules must be baked according to J-STD-033.
Please note that our products are to be stored and handled as ESD sensitive devices and are delivered as such.
Can I use water washing during manufacturing?
Products are qualified for water washing (as well as Glycol Ether and Isopropyl alcohol washing) according to IEC 60068-2-45 XA, method 2. However, it is imperative that sufficient drying time is considered to avoid any problems. Our FAEs can also guide you by contacting us at email@example.com
Flex Power Designer
What is the Flex Power Designer tool?
We have developed the Flex Power Designer tool in order to help you to sketch, simulate, configure and monitor your digital power system. It is free to download the Flex Power Designer Tool. You can watch a short demonstration video HERE.
What are the key features of the Flex Power Designer tool?
Flex Power Designer (FPD) goes beyond simple converter configuration, and provides an overview of your whole power system, enabling you to define relationships across rails, including Phase Spreading, Sequencing and Fault Spreading.
The built-in simulation enables power-stage analysis to optimize tuning and visualize design behavior against your particular power requirements such as Transient Response, Output Impedance and Power Dissipation.
The software also includes thermal behavior simulation, graphically showing the dependencies between multiple user defined parameters such as ambient temperature, board temperature, wind speed, board thickness and copper thickness.
An additional feature recently added is a numerical conversion calculator which enables designers to work with the various alternative number formats for monitoring data allowed in the SMBus/PMBus standards. It also includes a display address resistor suggestion feature, which calculates suggested values for the PMBus address resistors SA0/SA1, as well as offering the ability to monitor common parameters from other vendors' power products.
It is free to download the Flex Power Designer Tool
A brief introduction to the key features of Flex Power Designer can be seen below.
How does the Flex Power Designer tool interact with Xilinx's Power Estimator tool?
The latest major upgrade to Flex Power Designer (4.0 and above) has now added the ability to import the .xpe output files from Xilinx's Power Estimator Tool to allow for easy power tree creation and optimization for Xilinx FPGAs. Families such as the Virtex Ultrascale+ and Kintex Ultrascale+ are currently supported, and more families will be added continuously. You can view a demo of the new features of this version of Flex Power Designer in the webinar recording below.
How do I use parametric search?
The parametric search is a tool to help you to quickly find products that meet your specific requirements. You can easily access the parametric search from the homepage. Parametric search has many different search fields, which by filling in your needed criteria will automatically return only matching products to enable you to hone in on the optimum solution(s).
Why should I create an account?
By creating your own account, you can immediately access the Flex Power Designer Tool rather than having to enter your full contact details again. In future updates to this section, we will also include the ability to save details of your selected products in one place, as well as adding other useful functions.
I forgot my password! How do I reset it?
You can easily reset your password by clicking HERE
Key to commonly used abbreviations
Here's a handy list of abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms commonly used within our industry
A/D – Analog to Digital
AAS – Advanced Antenna Systems
AC – Alternating Current
AC/DC – Alternating Current to Direct Current (converter / power supply)
ACK – Acknowledgement
ACS – Active Current Sharing or American Chemical Society
ADC – Analog to Digital Converter
ADM – Add/Drop Multiplexer
ADSL – Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
AGV – Automated Guided Vehicle
AI – Artificial Intelligence
AISG – Antenna Interface Standards Group
AMC – Advanced Mezzanine Card
AMP – Architects of Modern Power or Amplifier
AMR – Autonomous Mobile Robot
ANSI – American National Standards Institute
AOI – Automated Optical Inspection
AON – Active Optical Network
AP – Access Point
API – Application Programming Interface
APM – Advanced Power Management
APT – Average Power Tracking
APU – Accelerated Processing Unit
AR – Augmented Reality
AS – Access Server
ART – Adaptive Ramp-up Time
ASCR – A Single Cycle Response (digital compensator)
ASIC – Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASSP – Application Specific Standard Product
ATCA – Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture
ATE – Automatic Test Equipment
ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AVA – Analog Voltage Adjust
AVL – Approved Vendor List
AVS – Adaptive Voltage Scaling
AVSBus – Adaptive Voltage Scaling Bus
AWG – American Wire Gauge
BBU – Baseband Unit or Battery Back Up
BGA – Ball Grid Array / solder Bump Grid Array
BJT – Bipolar Junction Transistor
BMP – Board Mounted Power
BMS – Battery Management System
BoM – Bill of Materials
BSC – Base Station Controller
BSI – British Standards Institute
BSS – Base Station System
BTS – Base Transceiver Station
CA – Controller Assembly
CAD – Computer Aided Design
CAGR – Compound Annual Growth Rate
CAN – Controller Area Network (bus)
CAN FD – Controller Area Network Flexible Data-rate
CAS – Chemical Abstracts Service (number)
CB – Certification Body
CC – Constant Current
CCM – Continuous Conduction Mode
CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access
CE – Conformité Européenne (European Conformity) or Customer Edge
CEN – Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Committee for Standardization)
CENELEC – Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)
CEM – Contract Electronics Manufacturer
CFD – Computational Fluid Dynamics
CFM – Cubic Feet per Minute (airflow)
CM – Common Mode (noise/choke)
CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CMRR – Common Mode Rejection Ratio
CMRT – Conflict Minerals Reporting Template
CMTI – Common Mode Transient Immunity
CoC – Certificate of Conformance
CoO – Country of Origin
COTS – Commercial Off The Shelf
CPA – Centralized Power Architecture
CPE – Customer Premises Equipment
CPU – Central Processing Unit
CQC – China Quality Certification
C-RAN – Centralized Radio Access Network
CSA – Canadian Standards Association
CSV – Comma Separated Values
CTI – Comparative Tracking Index
CU – Centralized Unit
CV – Constant Voltage
CWDM – Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
CXL – Compute eXpress Link
D-AMPS – Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System
D/A – Digital to Analog
DAC – Digital to Analog Converter
DAP – Delivered At Place
DAS – Distributed Antenna System
DBF – Digital Beam Forming
DBV – Dynamic Bus Voltage
DC – Direct Current
DC/AC – Direct Current to Alternating Current (inverter)
DC/DC – Direct Current to Direct Current (converter)
DCL – Decision Logic or Data Control Language
DCM – Discontinuous Conduction Mode
DCR – Direct Current Resistance (measurement)
DCS – Distributed Control System
DDP – Delivered Duty Paid
DDR – Double Data Rate (memory)
DFE – Design For the Environment
DFM – Design For Manufacturability
DiCon – Direct Conversion
DIL – Dual InLine (package)
DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardisation)
DIP – Dual Inline Package
DLC – Dynamic Loop Compensation
DLS – Droop Load Sharing
DMUX – Demultiplexer
DOSA – Distributed-power Open Standards Alliance
DOW – Date Of Withdrawal
DPA – Distributed Power Architecture
DPM – Digital Power Management or Dynamic Power Management
DPoL – Digital Point of Load (converter)
DPWM – Digital Pulse Width Modulation or Discontinuous Pulse Width Modulation
DRAM – Dynamic Random Access Memory
DSL – Digital Subscriber Line
DSLAM – Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DSP – Digital Signal Processor
DTI – Distance Through Insulation
DTC – Direct Torque Control
DU – Distributed Unit
DUT – Device Under Test
DVT – Design Validation Testing
DWDM – Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
E2E – End to End
EAR – Export Administration Regulations
EB – Eighth Brick
EBITDA – Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization
EC – Engineering Change or Edge Computing
ECHA – European CHemicals Agency
ECN – Export Control Notice
ECCN – Export Control Classification Number
EDGE – Enhanced Data for Global Evolution
EDI – Electronic Data Interchange
EDP – Electrical Design Power or Electronic Data Processing
EFT – Electrical Fast Transient
EIA – Electronic Industries Association
ELV – Extra Low Voltage
EMAC – Ethernet Media Access Control (address)
EMBB – Enhanced Mobile BroadBand
EMC – Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMF – Electromotive Force
EMI – Electromagnetic Interference
EMR – Electromagnetic Radiation
EMS – Electronic Manufacturing Services
EN – Norme Européen (European Standard)
eNB – Evolved NodeB
ENIG – Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold
EOL – End Of Life
EPON – Ethernet Passive Optical Network
EPROM – Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
ERI – Early Return Index
ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning
ESD – Electrostatic Discharge
ESL – Equivalent Series Inductance
ESR – Equivalent Series Resistance
ESS – Environmental Stress Screening
ET – Envelope Tracking
ETA – Estimated Time of Arrival
ETD – Estimated Time of Departure
EUT – Equipment Under Test
EV – Electric Vehicle
EVDO – Evolution Data Optimized
EVT – Engineering Validation Testing
EXW – Ex Works
FAE – Field Application Engineer
FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions
FAR – Failure Analysis Report
FCA – Free Carrier
FCC – Federal Communications Commission
FDD – Frequency Division Duplex
FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access
FEA – Finite Element Analysis
FEM – Finite Element Method
FET – Field Effect Transistor
FFT – Fast Fourier Transform
FIT – Failure In Time
FMD – Full Material Declaration
FOB – Free On Board
FPD – Flex Power Designer
FPGA – Field Programmable Gate Array
FPM – Flex Power Modules
FTTx – Fiber To The "x" (Premises/Home/Building/Cabinet/Node etc.)
FWA – Fixed Wireless Access
GAM – Global Account Manager
GaN – Gallium Nitride
GCB – Group Communication Bus
GCM – Global Commodity Management
GMSL – Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link
gNB – Next Generation NodeB
GND – Ground
GPIB – General Purpose Interface Bus
GPIO – General Purpose Input/Output
GPON – Gigabit Passive Optical Network
GPP – General Purposes Processing
GPRS – General Packet Radio Service
GPS – Global Positioning System
GPU – Graphics Processing Unit
GSA – Global mobile Suppliers Association
GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications
GSMA – GSM Association
GUI – Graphical User Interface
HALT – Highly Accelerated Life Testing
HASL – Hot Air Solder Level
HASS – Highly Accelerated Stress Screening
HAST – Highly Accelerated Stress Testing
HB – Half Brick
HEMT – High Electron Mobility Transistors
HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle
HMI – Human Machine Interface
HPC – High Performance Computing
HPDC – High Performance Data Center
HRR – Hybrid Regulated Ratio
HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSPA – High-Speed Packet Access
HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HV – High Voltage
HVAC – Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
HVDC – High Voltage Direct Current (converter)
HW – Hardware
I/O – Input/Output
I2C – Inter-Integrated Circuit (bus)
IBA – Intermediate Bus Architecture
IBC – Intermediate Bus Converter
IBV – Intermediate Bus Voltage
IDC – Internet Data Center
IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission
IEE – Institution of Electrical Engineers
IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
ICS – Industrial Control Systems
ICT – Information and Communication Technology
IDU – Indoor Unit
IGBT – Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
IoE – Internet of Everything
IoT – Internet of Things
IIoT – Industrial Internet of Things (Industry 4.0)
IMS – Insulated Metal Substrate or IP Multimedia Subsystem
IP – Internet Protocol or Intellectual Property or International Protection
IPMI – Intelligent Platform Management Interface
IPU – Image or Intelligence Processing Unit
IR – Infrared (Reflow)
IRR – Initial Return Rate
ISO – International Organization for Standardization
JEDEC – Joint Electronic Device Engineering Council
JFET – Junction Field Effect Transistor
JIT – Just In Time
JTAG – Joint Test Action Group
LAN – Local Area Network
LDO – Low Dropout (voltage regulator)
LFM – Linear Feet per Minute (airflow)
LGA – Land Grid Array
LLC – Inductor-Inductor-Capacitor (resonant converter)
LPF – Low Pass Filter
LPWA – Low Power Wide Area
LSB – Least Significant Bit
LTB – Last Time Buy
LTE – Long Term Evolution
LTRR – Long Term Return Rate
LVD – Low Voltage Directive
M2M – Machine to Machine
MAC – Media Access Control (address)
MCU – Microcontroller Unit
MEC – Mobile Edge Computing
MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output
MLB – Multi Layer Board
MLCC – Multi Layer Ceramic Capacitor
MMIMO – Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output
MMTC – Massive Machine Type Communication
MOOP – Means Of Operator Protection
MOP – Means of Protection
MOPP – Means of Patient Protection
MOQ – Minimum Order Quantity
MOSFET – Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MOV – Metal Oxide Varistor
MPQ – Minimum Package Quantity
MRP – Materials Requirement Planning
MRT – Multi Resonant Topology
MSB – Most Significant Bit
MSL – Moisture Sensitivity Level
MTBF – Mean Time Between Failures
MTTF – Mean Time To Failure
MTTR – Mean Time To Repair
MUX – Multiplexer
NACK – Negative Acknowledgement
NAT – Network Address Translation
NCNR – Non-Cancellable Non-Returnable
NDA – Non-Disclosure Agreement
NEBS – Network Equipment Building System
NEMA – National Electronic Manufacturers Association
NFF – No Fault Found
NFV – Network Functions Virtualization
NGMN – Next Generation Mobile Networks (alliance)
NLR – Non-Linear Response
NPI – New Product Introduction
NPR – New Product Requirement
NR – New Radio (5G)
NRE – Non-Recurring Engineering (charge)
NTC – Negative Temperature Coefficient
NVM – Non-Volatile Memory
NRND – Not Recommended for New Designs
OADM – Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer
OBC – On Board Charger
OCP – Over Current Protection or Open Compute Project
OCV – Open Circuit Voltage
ODM – Original Design Manufacturer
ODSC – Outdoor Small Cell
ODU – Outdoor Unit or Open Distributed Unit
OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer
OES – Open Enterprise Server
OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OLT – Optical Line Termination
ONT – Optical Network Terminal
ORU – Open Radio Unit
O-RAN – Open Radio Access Network (Alliance)
OT – Operational Technology
OTP – Over Temperature Protection
OVP – Over Voltage Protection
OXC – Optical cross-connect
PA – Power Amplifier
PAA – Phased Array Antenna
PAPR – Peak to Average Power Ratio
PBX – Private Branch Exchange
PCB – Printed Circuit Board
PCBA – Printed Circuit Board Assembly
PCI – Peripheral Component Interface
PCIe – Peripheral Component Interface Express
PCN – Product Change Notification
PD – Powered Device
PDE – Partial Differential Equation
PDN – Product Discontinuation Notice or Power Distribution Network or Power Delivery Network
PDU – Power Distribution Unit
PE – Polyethylene
PEC – Packet Error Checking
PF – Power Factor
PFC – Power Factor Correction
PG – Power Good
PHY – Physical Layer
PID – Proportional Integral Derivative or Packet Identifier
PIM – Power Interface Module
PIP – Pin-In-Paste (reflow soldering through hole parts)
PLC – Programmable Logic Controller or Product Life Cycle or Power Line Communications
PLCM – Product Life Cycle Management
PMBus – Power Management Bus
PMIC – Power Management Integrated Circuit
PMU – Power Management Unit
PN – Product Notification
PO – Purchase Order
PoE – Power Over Ethernet
POEP – Power Over Ethernet Plus (PoE+)
PoL – Point of Load (converter)
POLA – Point Of Load Alliance
PON – Passive Optical Network
PoP – Point of Presence
POTS – Plain Old Telephone Service
PPE – Polyphenylene Ether
PPPoE – Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PRD – Product Requirment Document
PROM – Programmable Read Only Memory
PSA – Power Stamp Alliance
PSE – Power Sourcing Equipment
PSL – Preferred Suppliers List
PSMP – Power Surface Multiplier Package
PSU – Power Supply Unit
PTC – Positive Temperature Coefficient or Power Temperature Cycling
PTH – Plated Through Hole
PTP – Point To Point
PTMP – Point To Multi Point
PUE – Power Usage Effectiveness
PV – Photovoltaic (inverter)
PVT – Production Validation Testing
PWB – Printed Wiring Board
PWM – Pulse Width Modulation
QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QB – Quarter Brick
QDR – Quad Data Rate
QFN – Quad Flat No-lead
QML – Qualified Manufacturers List
RAM – Random Access Memory
RAN – Radio Access Network
RC – Remote Control (on/off)
RCI – Rack Cooling Index
REACH – Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of CHemicals
RF – Radio Frequency
RFI – Radio Frequency Interference or Request For Information
RFP – Request For Proposal
RFPA – Radio Frequency Power Amplifier
RFQ – Request For Quotation
RH – Relative Humidity
RIC – RAN Intelligence Controller
RMA – Returned Material Authorization
RMS – Root Mean Square
RNC – Radio Network Controller
ROADM – Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer
RoHS – Restriction of Hazardous Substances
ROM – Read Only Memory or Rough Order of Magnitude
RRH – Remote Radio Head
RRU – Remote Radio Unit
RS – Recommended Standard (e.g. RS232, RS485 etc.)
RSM – Regional Sales Manager
RTU – Remote Terminal Unit
RU – Radio Unit or Rack Unit
RX – Receive
SA – Serial Address
SALERT – SMBus Alert
SAN – Storage Area Network
SB – Sixteenth Brick
SCADA – Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SCC – Switched Capacitance Converter or Short Circuit Current
SCIP – Substances of Concern In articles, as such or in complex objects (Products)
SCL – Serial Clock Line
SCP – Short Circuit Protection
SCR – Silicon Controlled Rectifier
SCSI – Small Computer System Interface
SDA – Serial Data line
SDH – Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDN – Software Defined Networks
SELV – Safety Extra Low Voltage
SFOC – Sensorless Field Oriented Control
SI – Système International
SiC – Silicon Carbide
SIP – Single Inline Package or Session Initiation Protocol
SKU – Stock Keeping Unit
SMA – Surface Mount Assembly
SMBus – System Management Bus
SMD – Surface Mount Device
SMPS – Switched Mode Power Supply
SMT – Surface Mount Technology
SoC – System on Chip or Statement of Compliance
SOIC – Small Outline Integrated Circuit
SON – Self Organizing Network
SONET – Synchronous Optical Networking
SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface
SPQ – Standard Package Quantity
SPS – Standby Power Supply
SQL – Structured Query Language
SRAM – Static Random Access Memory
SSD – Solid State Drive
STC – Switched Tank Capacitor
STEP – Standard for the Exchange of Product model data
SVHC – Substances of Very High Concern
SVID – Serial Voltage Identifier
SW – Software
SWaP-C – Size, Weight, Power and Cost
SWG – Standard Wire Gauge
T&R – Tape and Reel
TCE – Thermal Coefficient of Expansion
TCO – Total Cost of Ownership
TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
TD-SCDMA – Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access
TDD – Time Division Duplexing
TDM – Time Division Multiplexing
TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access
TDP – Thermal Design Power
TH – Through Hole
THD – Total Harmonic Distortion
THT – Through Hole Technology
TIA – Telecommunications Industries Association
TIM – Thermal Interface Material
TIP – Telecom Infra Project
TTL – Transistor Transistor Logic
TUV – Technischer Uberwachungs Verein
TVS – Transient Voltage Suppressor
TX – Transmit
UART – Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UL – Underwriters Laboratories
UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UPOE – Universal Power Over Ethernet (PoE++)
UPS – Uninterruptable Power Supply
URLLC – Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication
USB – Universal Serial Bus
UUT – Unit Under Test
UVLO – Under Voltage Lock Out
UVP – Under Voltage Protection
VCO – Voltage Controlled Oscillator
VDC – Virtual Data Center
VDE – Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker
VID – Voltage Identifier
VFD – Variable Frequency Drive
VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network
VoC – Verification of Conformity
VoIP – Voice over IP (Internet Protocol)
VoLTE – Voice over LTE
VoNR – Voice over New Radio
VPN – Virtual Private Network
VQFN – Very thin Quad Flat No-lead
V-RAN – Virtualized Radio Access Network
VRM – Voltage Regulator Module
VSD – Variable Speed Drive
WAN – Wide Area Network
WBG – Wide Band Gap (semiconductor)
WCDMA – Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (directive)
WiMAX – Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access
WIP – Work In Progress
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network
XPE – Xilinx Power Estimator
YRR – One Year Return Rate
ZCS – Zero Current Switching
ZEV – Zero Emission Vehicle
ZIF – Zero Insertion Force
ZVS – Zero Voltage Switching
2G – Second Generation (GSM/D-AMPS/GPRS/EDGE)
3D – 3 Dimensional
3G – Third Generation (UMTS/CDMA2000/HSPA/HSPA+/EVDO)
3GPP – Third Generation Partnership Project
4G – Fourth Generation (LTE/LTE-A/LTE-Pro)
4PPOE – 4-Pair Power Over Ethernet
5G – Fifth Generation (NR)
µC – Microcontroller
µTCA - Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture